Masuk

Ingat Saya

BMT

Chapter I
Introduction

Issue of poverty indeed be interesting, because poverty is the level of social strata that are most down so impressed alienated from public life. Prophet Muhammad said: “Almost indigence (poverty) plunged to infidelity”. Word above implies that the impact of poor economic conditions can impair the quality of one’s religion.
Various economic phenomena that occur from the impact of the economic crisis, or the weakness of the standard of living of people who are on the poverty line, far away from the need for a decent life, encouraging the emergence of an alternative Islamic financial institutions.Ie an institution that not only businesses but also socially oriented. This agency does not do the concentration of wealth in a minority of owners of capital (founder) with the majority of the person on this calculation, but the institutions that wealth is distributed fairly and equitably. This institution was born from the realization that people are destined to help the majority small businesses / micro. In addition, the institute also does not get stuck in the game of business for personal again, but to build together to achieve common prosperity. The agency is the Baitul Maal WaTamwil (BMT).

Chapter II
Discussion

A. Definition of Baitul Maal WaTamwil

Baitul Mal wa tamwil is a micro-finance institution that is operated by the principle of sharing, cultivate micro and small businesses in order to raise and defend the dignity and interests of the poor. Conceptually, BMT has two functions Baitul Tamwil (Bait = Home, At Tamwil = Development of Assets). So BMT is an integrated independent business hall whose contents cored bayt al-mal wa al-tamwil with activities proactive develop businesses and investment in improving the quality of economic activity down and small entrepreneurs with, among others, to encourage the activities of saving[1] . Baitul Mal watamwil or independent business hall integrated funding is economic or micro-finance institutions which are operated based on the principle of profit sharing and is referred to as non-banking Islamic financial institutions that are informal. Because informally called institution was created or established by a community based organization (CBO), which is different from banking financial institutions and other formal financial establishment. As a financial institution was in charge of collecting funds from the public (members BMT) and channel funds to the community (members BMT). asan economic institution also entitled to engage in economic activitiessuch as trade, industry and agriculture.

[1] Abdul, azizdanMariyah, ulfah, KapitaSelektaEkonomi Islam Kontemporer (Bandung: Alfabeta,2010),h. 115

By doing so, BMT professionally managed so as to achieve a certain level of economic efficiency, for the sake of the welfare of members, institutional strengthening concomitant BMT itself. In the social point of view, BMT (in this case the treasury) oriented towards improving the lives of members who may not be reached with the business principle. Stimulant through ZIS will direct members to develop their business, to eventually be able to develop business funds.

B. History and Development of BMT in In indonesia

BMT history in Indonesia, starting in 1984 developed in Mosque Salman ITB students who try rolling the financial institutions based Shari’ah for small businesses. Then BMT more empowered by ICMI (Association of Indonesian Muslim Intellectuals) as a movement that is operationally followed by Small Business Incubation Center (PINBUK).BMT opens cooperation with lending institutions and borrowers of small-scale business by adhering to the basic principles of economic governance in the Islamic religion that is mutually voluntary, trust and responsibility, and especially the system for results. BMT continue to grow. BMT will continue to proceed and seek new breakthrough to advance the community’s economy, because muammalat problem is growing over time. BMT is so rampant these days as people attempt to return economic Shariah compliance and contribute to tackling the economic crisis that hit Indonesia since 1997. Since the principle of voluntary are not burdensome, the presence of BMT is fresh air for customers. It is seen from the operation which was originally confined to the environment, then spread to other areas. Of these, the number of BMT in 2003 estimated 3000’s spread in Indonesia, and did not rule BMT growth will be increased with increasing public confidence.

C.The productsof BaitulMaalWaTamwil

As with other Islamic financial institutions BMT in operations using the three principles, namely:

1.Principles for the results

a)Mudharabah
b) Musharakah
c) muzara’ah
d) Musaqah

2.Buying and selling by margin (profit);

a)Murabahah
b) Ba’iAs-Salam
c) Ba’iAl-Istisna

3.Other profit system;

Operational activities in collecting funds from the public can take the form of demand deposits wadi’ah, Mudharabah savings, investment deposits mudharabah, Hajj Savings . Baitul Mal Wa Tamwil an Islamic micro-finance institutions were highlighted in the early nineties by Muslim activists who fret saw alignments economics countries that do not favor the small and medium person economy. [2] [2] Abdul, azizdanMariyah, ulfah, KapitaSelektaEkonomi Islam Kontemporer (Bandung: Alfabeta,2010), h. 120

D. Operational Mechanism BaitulMaalWaTamwil

1. Some initiators know about BMT convey and explain the idea or the idea to his colleagues, including what it BMT, vision, mission, goals and his efforts. So that proponents can grow.
2. Armed with an initial capital, opened an office manager and running the BMT, actively promote public savings and provide financing to micro and small enterprises around it.
3. Financing by using the results in accordance with the contract. From the results, managers pay honor his best (and gradually enlarged), office rent, electricity supplies, and others.
4. The most important thing is that, from the results of these managers also pay profit sharing to depositors, arranged slightly larger compared with the interest in conventional banks.
5. By providing the results to the savers and the exact explanation of the vision, mission, goals and efforts BMT, BMT will be growing wealth offset by financing micro and small enterprises more smoothly.

E. Rule of LawConcerning theBaitulMaalWaTamwil
BMT is based on Pancasila the constitutionin 1945 also the sharia, of faith, of integrity, brotherhood ,unity, independence and professionalism. Legally BMT is the umbrella to cooperatives but operationally BMT is not much different from the Islamic Bank. Therefore , cooperative legal entity, then the BMT should be subject to the law number 25 of 1992 concerning Cooperatives and Government Regulation No. 9 of 1995 on the implementation of the savings and loan business. Also confirmed by KEPMEN number 91 of 2004 on Cooperative Financial Services Shariah. The law as an umbrella for the establishment of BMT (Micro-finance Institutions Shariah).Although actually not very appropriate because in a cooperative savings and loan specifically designed for cooperative member sonly, while in the BMT, the financing provided not only to members but also to other than members or more members if the financing has been completed.

F. Impact of Development and Growth BMT in Indonesia
1. Generating micro-enterprises among the lower middle.
2. Helping the community in terms of savings and loans
3. Improve living standards through economic cooperation mechanisms and business
4. With the BM Then there is no hoarding money because the money continues to spin
5. Expand employment, especially in thereal sector.

G.Constraints

1. BMT is still less known by the public,so that the number of customers is not too much
2. Less promotion of the institution it self, then the public trust towards BMT is still lacking
3. The majority of people-the city has a sense of pride to save a small amount
4. lack of capital owned by the agency BMT. [3] [3]http://tugaskuliah000.blogspot.com baitul-maal-wa-tamwil-bmt.html di AKSES 10/12/2015 Pukul 19.00 WIB

H.Raising and Disbursement BMT
1. Raising funds
BMT funding obtained through deposits, i.e., funds entrusted by customers to BMT for sector channeled productively in structure financing.This can take the form of savings deposits wadi’ah, deposits mudharabah short term and long term

.2.Distribution offunds
BMT fund distribution to customer sconsists of two types:

a)The financing system for results
b) Sale and purchase with deferred payment
Financing is channeling funds to a third party BMT financing is based on an agreement between BMT and other parties with a specific period and the agreed profit sharing ratio.

Financing is divided into murabahah and Musharaka financing. Disbursement of funds in the form of sale with deferred payment is the sale of goods from BMT to customers, the price is set at cos tplus an agreed profit margin for profit BMT. [4]

[4] Hertanto, widodoDkk, panduanpraktisoperasionalbaitul mal watamwil (Bandung: Mizan, 2000), h. 83

I.ProblemsBMT

With all its short comings, the advantages of the BMT, the problems still exist, among others:

1. Capital

Relatively small capital into problems at any time there is a BMT. Backed with a turnover that is not necessarily returned 100% for BMT.

2.Bad Debt

The slow pace of installments received by BMT become a classic reason for BMT. This issue has become a meal each occurs contract-financing agreement, although not all borrowers are always problematic.

3.Liquidity

With arelatively small capital and are required to obtain aprofit turn around occurs, in addition tothird party funds also rotated so that funds deposited to obtain the results,

4.Market Share

Market produced by BMT is limited to the scope of the district, so if taken ananalysis, in the district there are nomajor industries that is less supportive of BMT as an intermediary.

J. Role of Islamic Financial Institutions BMT As the Economy Society.
Hernandide Soto in his book The Mystery of Capital (2001) describe the enormity of the informal economic sector in playing its role in economic activity in developing countries. He also indicated the economic downturn in developing countries due to the inability to raise capital for a community agency that the majority of small entrepreneurs. Indonesia, for example, is the developing countries that the number of small entrepreneurs reach 39.04 million. But small businesses that do not have significant access to the banking institution, as the institution’s capital. Banking institutions have not been able to reach out to the needs of small businesses, especially in the regions and rural areas.

The absence of financial institutions that reach rural areas (agriculture and the informal sector) are adequately capable of providing alternative services (product and services) savings and loans that are compatible with the social conditions of cultural as well as the ‘needs’ of the economy of rural communities led to the concept of BMT (Baitul Mal watTamwil ) can be ‘presented’ in the districts of the city and even in districts and rural areas.
BMT concept as a microfinance institution of Shariah, a fund management concept (savings and loan) at the community level that is actually in line with the concept of regional autonomy, which relies on resource management at the level of government (administration) from the bottom at the village.
Citing formulations BambangIsmawan (1994) on microfinance institutions, then at least there are some things that played BMT in autonomy:

1. Support equitable growth
BMT services widely and effectively so that would be served a variety of micro enterprises. The development of micro enterprises which later turned into a small business, this will facilitate the even distribution of growth.

2. Addressing the gaps towns and villages
Due to the wide range of BMT, may include villages and towns, this is a breakthrough development. Admittedly, during the development of these often less fair in rural communities, because more inclined to develop the city. One indicator is of the rapid urbanization and the rapid development of micro-finance which enabled to reach the village, of course, will reduce the gap villages and towns.
3 Overcoming gaps large enterprises and small businesses
Sectors which have had access and the ease of developing ourselves is a huge undertaking, consequently arise widening chasm between the large and growing business development was overtaken by small businesses. With the support of small business financing, of course, this will reduce the gap that occurs.
4 Reduce capital outflow
The development of big cities are so rapid, increasingly leaving the growth areas of the countryside. Microfinance institutions more capable of Shariah BMT facilitate the saving of the village community or the relevant areas, can reuse the savings they have accumulated.

5. Improve regional autonomy
Given the factors of production (capital, land, HR) which is the power possessed by the region, exploited and utilized fully to exploit the opportunities that exist, the dependence on investment from outside the region (and abroad) will be reduced, as well as economic investment people , can thrive.There is equity growth, the balance of urban and rural growth, reduced gaps large businesses-small businesses, of course, this will reduce the likelihood of regional instability. Jealous would be reduced, because the well-being of uniform will cause a multiplier effect as well as the interdependence between one part and another.
Regional autonomy is an opportunity for economic empowerment of the people by utilizing Islamic micro-finance institutions BMT. Through Islamic micro-finance, economic revival of the people (and the national economy) as well as poverty reduction, will be done by the people themselves. Indeed, the time has come, people find their own way to overcome the problems they face. [5] [5]http://aderustan.blogspot.com bmty.html di akses 10/12/2015pukul 14:05 WIB

Chapter III
Conclusion

BMT is an Islamic financial institutions that plays an important role in the development in the era of regional autonomy and the current global, however, to facilitate the development of Islamic microfinance, it needs a conducive atmosphere, as well as strategic so small people could enjoy a financial system that helps them in terms of financing for this nation as support regulations that facilitate the development and microfinance protecting itself, not even inhibit or turn it off. Of course the rule is one factor for the development of microfinance. With the BMT is a speck of light at a time when thick fog meant that the amount and growth of the big banks either conventional or sharia tends to be enjoyed only by those who are able to both financial and education here BMT for small people to advance their business without a complicated system in the nation’s banking with so economic helped and no more unemployment and poverty and micro development goes rapidly and become one of the barns contry’s income.

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